NPDC-1 (Neural Proliferation Differentiation and Control-1) is expressed in neurons once they have stopped dividing and begun to differentiate. NPDC-1 is transported from the Golgi apparatus via vesicles before becoming internalized by endosomes at the cell membrane. NPDC-1 interacts with Cdk2, D-type cyclins, and the transcription factor E2F1. This interaction can lead to an increased replication time, and might have implications in final neural differentiation and apoptosis. NPDC-1 has been shown to colocalize with synaptic vesicle proteins: synaptophysin, synaptobrevin 2, and Rab3 GEP (Rab3 GTP/GDP exchange protein). One function of NPDC-1 is to regulate retinoic acid-mediated events by directly interacting with retinoid receptors.
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