NOX2/gp91phox is a critical component of the membrane-bound oxidase of phagocytes that generates superoxide. It is the terminal component of a respiratory chain that transfers single electrons from cytoplasmic NADPH across the plasma membrane to molecular oxygen on the exterior. It also functions as a voltage-gated proton channel that mediates the H(+) currents of resting phagocytes. It participates in the regulation of cellular pH and is blocked by zinc. Defects in CYBB are a cause of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD). X-CGD is characterized by the failure of activated phagocytes to generate superoxide.
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