The family of voltage-dependent chloride channels (CLCs) regulate cellular trafficking of chloride ions, a critical component of all living cells. CLCs regulate excitability in muscle and nerve cells, aid in organic solute transport and maintain cellular volume.Mutations in the gene encoding CLC1 lead to myotonia, an inheritable disorder characterized by muscle stiffness and renal salt wasting. CLC2 is highly expressed in the epithelia of several organs including lung, which suggests CLC2 may be a possible therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. CLC3 expression is particularly abundant in neuronal tissue, while CLC4 expression is evident in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well as brain. Mutations in the gene encoding CLC5 lead to Dent’s disease, a renal disorder characterized by proteinuria and hypercalciuria.