Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a component of mineralized tissues such as bone, dentin, cementum and calcified cartilage. BSP is a significant component of the bone extracellular matrix and has been suggested to constitute approximately 8% of all non-collagenous proteins found in bone and cementum. It is synthesized by skeletal-associated cell types, including hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The only extraskeletal site of its synthesis is the trophoblast. This protein binds to calcium and hydroxyapatite via its acidic amino acid clusters, and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence that recognizes the vitronectin receptor.