Chromobox protein homolog 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBX5 gene. It is a highly conserved, non-histone protein part of the heterochromatin family. The protein itself is more commonly called (in humans) HP1α. Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) has an N-terminal domain that acts on methylated lysines residues leading to epigenetic repression. The C-terminal of this protein has a chromo shadow-domain (CSD) that is responsible for homodimerizing, as well as interacting with a variety of chromatin-associated, non-histone proteins.