Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical pathway of the complement system, acting as a multi-domain serine protease. Deficiency of C2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases. In the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation, formation of the C3-convertase and C5-convertases requires binding of C2 to an activated surface-bound C4b in the presence of Mg2+; the resultant C4bC2 complex is then cleaved by C1s or MASP2 into C2a and C2b. It is thought that cleavage of C2 by C1s, while bound to C4b, results in a conformational rotation of C2b whereas the released C2a fragment may retain most of its original structure.