Checkpoint kinase 1, commonly referred to as Chk1, is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that are involved in cell cycle control. Two checkpoint kinase subtypes have been identified, Chk1 and Chk2. Chk1 is a central component of genome surveillance pathways and is a key regulator of the cell cycle and cell survival. Chk1 is required for the initiation of DNA damage checkpoints and has recently been shown to play a role in the normal (unperturbed) cell cycle. Chk1 impacts various stages of the cell cycle including the S phase, G2/M transition and M phase. In addition to mediating cell cycle checkpoints, Chk1 also contributes to DNA repair processes, gene transcription, embryo development, cellular responses to HIV infection and somatic cell viability.
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