The claudin super family consists of structurally related proteins that are important structural and functional components of tight junctions. Claudin-2, also known as CLDN2 or SP82, is a 230 amino acid multi-pass membrane protein that localizes to the cell junctions and belongs to the claudin super family. Able to form homopolymers of heteropolymers with other claudin family members, claudin-2 plays an essential role in mediating calcium-independent cell-adhesion activity that is necessary for tight junction-specific obliteration of the intercellular space. Overexpression of claudin-2 is associated with a variety of diseases, including lung cancer, colorectal cancer, gastrointestinal carcinomas and inflammatory bowel disease, further affirming the importance of claudin-2 in cell adhesion. The gene encoding claudin-2 maps to human chromosome X, which contains nearly 153 million base pairs and houses over 1,000 genes.
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