The human JNK1 (PRKM8, SAPK1, MAPK8) gene maps to chromosome 10q11.22 and shares 83% amino acid identity with JNK2. JNK1 is necessary for normal activation and differentiation of CD4 helper T (TH) cells into TH1 and TH2 effector cells. Capsaicin activates JNK1 and p38 in Ras-transformed human breast epithelial cells. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) upregulate JNK1 in addition to c-Fos, c-Jun and other signaling kinases, including MEKK1 and p38. JNK3 (MK10, MAPK10, PRKM10) is activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stresss by phosphorylating transcription factors such as c-Jun and ATF2. This is important for AP-1 transcriptional activity regulation. JNK3 is crucial for neuronal apoptosis (stress-induced).
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